Brief description of climate

Equatorial climate


This type of climate is characterized by a predominance of hot and humid Equatorial air masses. The air temperature is constant (+24-28 °C), during the year a lot of precipitation falls (from 1500 to 5000 mm). Due to the fact that rainfall exceeds evaporation, soils in the Equatorial climate are wetlands, they grow dense and high-water forests. The Equatorial type of climate is formed over the Northern regions of South America, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, over the Congo basin and the upper Nile in Africa, over most of the Indonesian archipelago and adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific oceans in Asia.

Sub-Equatorial climate

In this type of climate, there are rainy seasons every year – in summer it is hot and often heavy rainfall. With the arrival of winter comes a cooler and drier season. Precipitation in the subequatorial climate is very unevenly distributed. For example, in the capital of Guinea, Conakry in December-March 15 mm of precipitation falls, and June-September-3920 mm. This type of climate is common in some parts of the Indian ocean, in the Western Pacific ocean, as well as over South Asia and in the tropics of Africa and South America.

Tropical climate

The tropical climate zone is dominated by anticyclones with high pressure, and the weather is clear almost all year round. This climatic zone is characterized by two seasons: warm and cold. Temperatures can range from +20 °C on the coast to +50 °C inland. Daily temperature fluctuations are also very significant: in summer, the air warms up to +40-45 °C during the day, cools down to + 10-15 °C. in the tropics, deserts are often found, the largest of which is the Sahara in Africa. Savannas and deciduous forests are common in wetter areas. Tropical climate is typical for Mexico, North and South Africa, Central Australia, the Arabian Peninsula.

Subtropical climate

Subtropical climate prevails in regions located between tropical and temperate latitudes, approximately between 30° and 45° North and South. It is usually hot tropical summers and quite cool winters. The average monthly temperature in summer is above + 22 °C, in winter above -3 °C, but due to the invasion of polar air, frosts to -10 are possible ...-15 °C, and sometimes severe (to -25 °C) frosts. This type of climate is typical for the Mediterranean, South Africa, Southwestern Australia, northwestern California.

Temperate climate

This type of climate is formed at temperate latitudes (from 40-45° North and South latitude to polar circles). In the Northern hemisphere, more than half of the island's surface temperate zone, in the southern 98% - is the oceans. The temperate climate is characterized by frequent and severe weather changes due to cyclones. The main feature of the temperate climate four seasons: two main-cold (winter) and warm (summer), and two intermediate – spring and autumn. The average temperature of the coldest month is usually below 0 °C and the warmest month is above + 15 °C. in temperate climates, there is snow on the ground in winter. Prevailing westerly winds bring rainfall throughout the year, with annual rainfall ranging from 1,000 mm in coastal areas to 100 mm inland.


(Subarctic/subantarctic) climate

Subarctic climatic zone is located between the Arctic and temperate climatic zones of the Northern hemisphere. In summer it is dominated by moderate air mass in winter-Arctic. Summer is short and cold, in July the temperature rarely rises above + 15 °C, at night falls to 0...+3 °C. in Summer, night frosts are not excluded. In winter, the air temperature day and night is-35-45 °C. the territory is dominated by subarctic climate, occupied tundra and forest tundra, the soil is permafrost, plants and animals are rare. Subarctic climate is common in Northern Russia and Canada, Alaska (USA), southern Greenland and the Far North of Europe. The sub-Antarctic climate zone is located in the southern hemisphere between the temperate and Antarctic zones. The vast majority of the sub-Antarctic climate zone is occupied by the ocean surface. Rainfall reaches 500 mm per year.

Polar climate

Above 70 ° North and 65° South latitude, the polar climate prevails, forming two zones: Arctic and Antarctic. The whole year is dominated by polar air masses. The sun several months not emerges at all (this time is called "polar night") and several months not moves away for horizon ("polar day"). Snow and ice give more heat than it gets, so the air is very cool, the snow does not melt all year round. Throughout the year there is a high atmospheric pressure (anticyclone), so the winds are weak, there are almost no clouds. Precipitation is very small, the air is saturated with small ice needles, and in summer is characterized by prolonged drizzle. The average summer temperature does not exceed 0 °C, and winter-20-40 °C.