Cadastre of mudflow basins and centers of Tajikistan

To the history of creation

“Cadastre of mudflow basins and centers of Tajikistan

The study of mudflow phenomena on the territory of Tajikistan officially began with the formation of the Hydrographic Party ( HGP) department in 1956. At the same time, in the department of hydrology, the post of engineer of a hydrologist was introduced, whose duties were the study and forecasting of mudflow processes. In 1969, a mudflow study group was organized in the HGP department, which included a senior engineer, two engineers and four technicians. The program has been expanded for studying mudflows. The need to observe, study and predict mudflows in Tajikistan was quite acute. The peculiarity of the terrain, the amount of precipitation on the territory of various regions of the republic contribute to the formation of mudflow processes in both mountain and valley regions. In the republic, mudflow manifestations are of a different nature and all types of mudflows participate in the process of mudflows, namely: water, nano-water, mud, mud-stone, stone mudflows. With the development of mountain and valley territories, the danger of destructive processes, often of a catastrophic nature, is increasing. Mudflows arise almost suddenly and are rapidly moving along the mountain and valley channels of rivers and watercourses, significant masses of friable - clastic material mixed with water washed or lost their equilibrium. For short periods of time, these streams destroy bridges, mountain hydroelectric power stations and roads, fill up canals, arable lands and other economically developed lands with their drifts. They threaten settlements, including such major cities of Tajikistan as the capital Dushanbe, Pejikent, Kulyab and other cities. Often the cause of selepriroenie becomes the death of people.

The duty of the mudflow department was to examine the traces of past mudflows, which was carried out immediately after the mudflow. Representative areas were selected in a number of mudflow hazardous areas, sections were broken, along which leveling of mudflow areas was carried out using geodetic instruments, mudflow thickness was determined, mudflow flow rate and other characteristics were calculated. In the spring - summer months, in case of rainfall, forecasts were made - warnings about the possibility of mudflows. These forecasts were brought to the attention of the government of the republic and other organizations, such as CoES, power engineers, landreclamations. Based on the results of mudflow-related activities, technical reports were compiled, in which mudflow parameters, meteorological and hydrological information were entered, as well as calculated data related to the conditions of formation and the dynamics of the mudflow process. The probable threat of mudflow threat for populated objects located in the mudflow zone was taken into account. By the order of the organizations building these or those objects, the mudflow department employees examined the mountainous territories for the possible likelihood of a mudflow threat. Thus, the territories of the Khoja Obigarm Resort Complex, tailings in the Panjakent District, the zones of construction of children's recreation camps, and much more were examined. Already in the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century, quite significant material of mudflow manifestations was accumulated and the need arose to systematize all the data obtained into a single whole. That is, to create a "Cadastre of mudflow basins and foci of Tajikistan." In 1984, the staff of the mudflow department of the GSP created the “Cadastre of mudflow outbreaks of the Kafirnigan River Basin”. Work began on compiling cadastres of the remaining river basins, but for a number of objective reasons the work was suspended. But observations of mudflows, predictions of mudflows continued. According to the work plan of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In the period 2010 - 2020, the sovereign Republic of Tajikistan was supposed to carry out work on the creation of a unified “Cadastre of mudflows” using archival material and modern data on cases of mudflows. The staff of the Glaciology Center (successor to the former Hydrographic Department) created the Cadastre on time. The materials of the "Cadastre of mudflow basins and foci of the Republic of Tajikistan" in text, tabular form, collected data on all basins and foci of possible nucleation and passage of mudflows. The “Cadastre” also presents maps of the areas of mudflows, as well as photographs of mudflows. Cadastre materials can be used by hydrologists, hydraulic engineers, design engineers and operators for the construction of national economic facilities, the development of mountainous areas, the construction of power lines, the construction of hydroelectric power stations and other social facilities.

The Cadastre also presents maps of mudflow areas, as well as photographs of mudflows

Pirov A.U..